Irrigation system in India & its types & uses | irrigation system | types of irrigation in india | use of Irrigation
Irrigation system is the artificial application of water to the soil through various systems which is consists of a intake structure, a conveyance system a distribution system and a drainage that is advantageous for increase in food production, mixed cropping, protection against drought, employment, power generation, revenue generations and transportations.
An efficient irrigation system consists of a carefully application of engineered assembly of pipes, different types of valves, sprinkler heads that is involved with point of connection, backflow prevention device, reduced pressure assembly and mainline.
What are the irrigation system?
Regarding this,”what are irrigation system?”, irrigation system is the artificial application of water to the soil by canals, ditches, dikes, piping systems, etc to promote the growth of food crops, revenue generations, productivity of mix crops, also usually used in areas where rainfall is irregular or drought is expected. These are many types of system in which water is supplied to the uniformly to the field.
These systems are existing freshwater supplies for maximumizing productivity per unit of land area to maximizing productivity per unit of water consumed accordance with the physically and biologically optimize irrigation demand that is control the full fledged irrigation system water delivery and application soil fertility, crop growth stages.
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Types of irrigation system
Regarding this, types of irrigation system, irrigation system are mainly composition of following systems/ types:-
1. Intake structures or piping stations
2. Conveyance system
3. Distribution system
4. Drainage systems
The intake structure or pumping station (main network of pump) well, tubes well is the part of irrigation system which is give directs water from the source of supply (reservoirs, rivers) into the irrigation system where as water requirements to fill upto crop period and increase in food production.
This is used for the collecting water from the surface sources river, reservoirs, lake and supplies water into the irrigation system, this type of structure are massonary or concrete structures that is provided with a opening a different levels permit the supply of water relatively clean water, objectanable floating, free from pollution from the source of supply such as river & reservoirs.
The conveyance systems is the medium part of the irrigation system which is used for the transport of water from the main intake structures or main pumping station with network to the soil ditches or field ditches that field ditches are excavated in the field, and this is flows across the field on the contour or up and down gradient.
The conveyance structures associated with the transmission, storage, impoundement and diversions of water, canal transporting the water by the irrigation system that is required for the control and measurement of the water flow.
The distribution systems is the main important play role in irrigation system, this is assures the transport of water to the irrigated fields with the crop requirements throughout the crop period for full fledged growth of the crops.
In this distribution system of irrigation, the irrigation water is distributed efficiently to the soil surface or field in various ways such as free flooding, border flooding, basin flooding, drip flooding, furrow flooding, sprinkler flooding irrigation that type of technique is systematic application of irrigated land which is depend upon soil textures, type of crops cultivated, gradient of the land.
The drainage system is the also known as river systems which is used for removes the exceeded water to the irtgated field due to rainfall, leaching from the field. This system are governed by the topography of land that particular region is dominant like as hard or soft rocks and the gradient of land.
Drainage systems depends on the basis of the number, size and shape of the drainage basin, geology of the land ,in fact due to its pattern transient between parallel, dendritic and trellis pattern which is river,s vertical flow in surface uplift, river continuous flow over a new surface and slop down linear of rivers and steep slopes of mountain sides geometry. Mainly two types of drainage system consists surface drains and French drains within grounds level area connected to pvc piping .
Definition of Irrigation
Irrigation is define as the process of artificial application of water to the land with fulfil water requirements of crops throughout the crop period for provide full-fledged nutrients to the crops, offers moisture required for growth and development germination , agricultural growth and maintain the landscape during the periods of less rainfall.
Irrigation is the science of artificial application to control the nature (the supply of water by nature does not similar the requirements of crops),by water holding with different types of process during the periods of excess rainfall and to use this stored water during the periods of irregular rainfall, less rainfall or dry times.
Types of irrigation
Regarding this, “types of irrigation”, there are different types of irrigation systems which is based on the water is distributed throughout the field or over the soil surface assured to the crops in accordance with the requirements of the crop by irrigation distribution system etc canal, reservior, wells and tubewells.
Types of irrigation are as follows-
1. Surface irrigation
2. Subsurface irrigation
Surface irrigation is type of irrigation system is the group of water science application techniques where water is distributed over the soil surface accordance with level either by gravity or by pumping which is best suitable to soils with low to moderate type of infiltration capacities and to lands with relatively uniform terrain. In this type of irrigation system water is distributed over and across field by gravity, no mechanical pumps involved.
Types of Surface irrigation systems are as following:-
1. Flow irrigation-: this type of Surface irrigation systems is the water application techniques in which water is supplied at a higher level to lower level by the action of gravity. Flow rrrigation is further sub-divided into perrenial irrigation and flood irrigation.
(a) Perennial irrigation
( b) Flood irrigation
Perennial irrigation-: Regarding this, Perennial irrigation , this flow irrigation is defined as the water is applied and distributed constant and continuous to over the soil surface in accordance with the requirements of the crops. This type of irrigation system, water is supplied through canal distribution system
Flood irrigation-: Flood irrigation system is surface flow irrigation that soil is kept submerged and thoroughly flooded with water due to region saturation of the land, this type of irrigation is also called uncontrolled irrigation or inundation irrigation, that is used in delta regions where the water level during flood is sufficiently high to supply water to the land by flow or partly by flow and partly by lift.
2. Lift irrigation-: it is simple type of surface irrigation, when the water is lifted up by some mechanical or manual etc pumps, then applied and distributed water for irrigated area crops, in this type of irrigation is use distribution system of irrigation that is wells and tubewells for supplying irrigation water fall under this category.
This type of irrigation system can be installed directly on the farm at any time and lined with material locally available with small economic and water can be applied to the required depth to irrigate crops, throughout the time periods.
These irrigation system are give high irrigation efficiency, no pollution and evaporation losses that result high yields is obtained with good water management and fertilizer application and improved method of irrigation like pipe, drip and sprinkler in practised.
Advantages of Surface irrigation
1. Water applied, distribution and management for irrigate crops is low initial cost
2. Easy maintenance of the this type of irrigation system .
3. These irrigation system are suitable with all soil types.
4. it is widely used
5. Minimum fertilizer and nutrient loss and reduced leaching
6. Reduces soil erosion
7. Give uniform distribution of water for irrigate over the soil surface.
8. Suitable in all types of soil and provide frost protection and increase the yield.
Sub-surface irrigation is type of irrigation flows underground and nourishes the plant roots by capillarity and during passage through the sub soil for irrigate crops on lower lands. This irrigation are divided into the two types Natural sub-irrigation and Artificial sub-irrigation.
Natural sub-surface irrigation-: This type of irrigation is underground achieved by naturally without any additional efforts, natural sub irrigation is leakage water from water distribution channels goes underground and during passage through the sub soil, these are irrigate crops sown on lower lands by capillarity and sometimes leakage causes the water table to rise up, which helps in irritation of crops by capillarity.
Artificial sub-irrigation-: Artificial sub irrigation system is open jointed drains is artificially laid below the soil, so as to distribute water to the crops by capallarity, this irrigation system is a very costly techniques process and adopted on a very small scale which is also recommended only in special cases with favourable soil conditions for cash crops of very high return.
Types of irrigation in india
Regarding this, “types of irrigation in india”, the most important and widly used in india such like as irrigation free flooding, border flooding, drip flooding sprinkler flooding which is artificial application of supply of water into the field for use of growth, productivity of crops .
There are some type of irrigation in india are following as-
1. Free flooding irrigation
2. Border flooding irrigation
4. Basin flooding
5. Furrow method irrigation
6. Sprinkler irrigation
7. Dip irrigation
Free flooding irrigation
Free flooding irrigation method is also known as ordinary method in which ditch are execavated in the field having up and down slope, water flows across the field from these ditches.
In this irrigation system movement of water supply is not restricted or no control the flow, when the water leaves the ditch.
This system is also called sometimes wild flooding, it is used for close growing crops, pastures where the land is steep gradient, initially as l cost of land preparation is low but labour requirements are usually high, also water application efficiency is low due to evaporation and percolation losses are high through the irregular flow of water or no control of flow water.
Boarder flooding irrigation
Boarder flooding irrigation system is most popular in which water is allowed to flow from the supply ditch into each strip, then the water distributed slowly towards the lower end of channels and these are infiltrates into the soil surface which is give a relationship with discharge per unit area of the border strip should be varied according to the infiltration capacity of the soil surface for the avoid of loss of water due to deep percolation and run off.
This irrigation system, the land is divided into a no. Of strips which is separated by boarders, the land area is divided in each strips which having size width 10 to 20 metres and 100 to 400 in length and borders are uniformly graded strips of land, depressed by earth binds which is to guide the flow of water down to the field.
Check flooding irrigation
Check flooding irrigation is techniques of controlled the water by surrounding the check area with low and flat borders which is best suited for deep homogeneous loam or clay soils with medium infiltration rates.
In this method, water is quickly spread in case of highly permeable soils and also held for a longer time in case of less permeable soils, so this method is suitable for both more permeable and less permeable soils,this is preferred for close growing crops jawar or paddy.
Basin flooding irrigation
Basin flooding irrigation system is model type of check flooding which is addopted one or more trees are placed in the square, rectangular, circular types in the basin and irrigated land or soil surface is flooded as in check basin.
This type of irrigation system depends upon the land slope, the soil type and the important factor the required depth of irrigation water to the supplied for obtain the good distribution of water over the basin area, it means depth of applied water is large, then the size of the basin should also be large.
Sprinkler irrigation system
Sprinkler irrigation system define as those system in which water is applied to the field or soil surface is similar to rainfall means in the form of spray by a network of pipes and pumps .this type of irrigation is suitable for light soils Sandy and silty with very little clay, as avoided the deep percolatin, undulating topography where land levelling is not necessary, these system are easy to work, quickly warm up and rapidly dry out.
Sprinkler irrigation system is best suited for cultivators of tea, coffee and vegetables and can be used for all the crops except rice and just ,due to standing water is required for cultivators of rice and just.
Modern methods of irrigation sprinkler system
Modern methods of irrigation sprinkler system, the sprinkler irrigation is s type of modern irrigation system that is play important role and widly efficient use in crops reuire water at regular interval of time for increase productivity of crops and protects the extreme frost or temperature,helps in conservation of soil to maintain nutrients soil fertility .
Advantages of Sprinkler irrigation
1. In this irrigation system evaporation and percolation losses are less
2. best suitable used for a wide range of topographic conditions soils for cultivators of crops.
3. This irrigation system is more land available for cropping due to borders, field channels does not require and also land levelling is not necessary, so labour cost is reduced.
4. This system is better controlled in uniform application of water, amount of applications of fertilizer, erosion of soil that results give high water application efficiency.
5. These are especially suiteble to humid regions.
Drip irrigation system
Drip irrigation systems can be defined as the method in which water and fertilizer drips slowly to the roots of the plant by a pipe network system and uniform water applied for row crops and orchards. This system is designed with the set up of tubes, pipes, valves, emitters that is operated both manually and automatically with the help of control .
Drip irrigation system is also known as trickle irrigation and best suited for row crops and orchards as tomatoes, grapes, corn, turnips, cauliflower, cabbage and fruits.
Advantage of drip irrigation
1. Percolation and evaporation loss are almost negligible.
2. Suitable for all types of soil and growth efficiency ret efficiency is high, especially highest effluent in vegetative growth
3. No run off from surface system, least wetting of soil.
4. These are permanent setups and easy to work, manage and operated system.
5. Furrow irrigation
The Furrows irrigation is a application of technique in which supplies water in grow of crops rows and down the slope with the help of small channels, most prevent to water logging and run off.
Furrows irrigation is best suited to grow row crops maize, sunflower, sugarcane, soya bean, these are most determine the slope, size of the stream, depth of the Irrigation and field length. this system is preferable used in gentle and strap slopes.
Different types of irrigation structures
Different types of irrigation structures is consist of modern irrigation equipment and adequate structure required for used of an efficient job of irrigation like as proper land preparation, adequate ditchs kept clean and dikes properly maintained so that water supply can be controlled easily into irigate field.
In this irrigation structures like as intake structures or piping stations structure, conveyance structures , distribution system and drainage structures are play important roles and widly used for growth in plant.
Different types of irrigation structures are following-
1. Surface irrigation-: (a) flooding -: Wild flooding,
Controlled flooding-: Free flooding, contour laterals flooding, border strip flooding, checks basin flooding, basin flooding, zigzag method of flooding
(b) Furrow flooding
(c) Counter farming
2. Subsurface irrigation
3. Sprinkler irrigation
These methods of irrigation are play a vital characteristics role of agricultural within the headgates, checks, drops , waterways and other structures for this reason the structures are controlling irrigation should be carefully planned to fit the needs of the farm.
Efficient use of irrigation water
Efficient use of irrigation water is defined as the existing freshwater supplies will require irrigated land for maximumizing productivity per unit of land area to maximizing per unit of water consumed that is depend upon demand broad system approaches that physically biologically irrigation relative to water delivery and application rainfall, soil fertility, location and weather.
Efficient use of water is the ratio between the water depth delivered by the particular distribution system and water depth supplied to the subsystem and also uniformity of water application is a measure of the special distribution of the depth of water applied to a field and primary function of design of field irrigation system.