**What is difference between long column and short column,**hi guys in this article we know about what is difference between long columns and short column and also know about what is long columns and short column.

We know column is compressive structural member of building. Horizontal load of dead load and live load of beam and slab transfer and acting vertically on column and column transfer its load safely to the bed of soil.

There is two types of phenomenon causes in in column structure when axial load applied over it in downward direction that is crushing of column and buckling of columns.crushing means breaking and failure of short column structure when subjected to high compressive stress and buckling is failure of long column structure when subjected to high buckling stress.

There is some shorts topics which help you easily difference between short column and long column

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1) **compressive stress** :- when axial load acting vertically down ward on the axis of column resulting compressive stress which one to compressed or push the column structure and try to shorten its length and also strength of column forces acting in upward direction which also compressed or push the column structure in upward direction and try to shorten its length,

so column will fail and break that is known as crushing under high compressive stress, that type of stress found in short type of column

2) **buckling stress**– when axial load vertically acting on column structure are resulting buckling stress which causes column to buckled and there is different types of effective length of column according to their support end.

The column which have one fixed support and other end free have higher effective length it is equal to twice of their length. Buckling stress is develop in long column

3) **radius of gyration** :- in structural engineering radius of gyration is used to describe the distribution of cross sectional area in column around its centroid axis.

Where r = √(I/A)

Where r = radius of gyration

I = moment of inertia

A = cross sectional area

And value of radius of gyration for long column in less than in short column

4) **slenderness ratio** :- slenderness ratio is the ratio of effective length of column to the minimum radius of gyration. Radius of gyration denoted by Lambda.

Slenderness ratio = Le/Kmin

Where Kmin = √ Im/A

**What is difference between long column and short column**

Now let us discuss important difference between long columns and short column to the point are following:-

1) for **long column**, ratio of total length of column and to least lateral dimension of column is more than 12.

If ratio Is R than

R = length of column/least lateral dimensions

**R > 12 for slender or Long column according to Indian standard**

Suppose height of column = 3000 mm

Lateral dimensions = 200×300 mm

Than R = 3000/200 =15 >12 that is long column

But for **short column**, ratio of total length of column and to least lateral dimension of column is less than 12.

If ratio Is R than

R = length of column/least lateral dimensions

**R < 12 for short column according to Indian standard**

Suppose height of column = 3000 mm

Lateral dimensions = 300 × 300 mm

Than R = 3000/300 =10 < 12 that is short column

2) **slenderness ratio in the case of long column is greater than 45 according to Indian standard that is**

Le/Kmin > 45

But for short column slenderness ratio of column is less than 45 according to Indian standard that is

**Le/Kmin < 45**

3) **long column** a structure member fails due to buckling

But **short column** structure member generally fails crushing

4) **long column** structure member generally subjected to buckling stress

But **short column** structure member generally subjected to compressive stress

5) for **long column** radius of gyration is less

But in **short column** radius of gyration is more

6) load carrying capacity of long column is less

But load carrying capacity of short column is more