Brick,brick size, brick types and brick masonry calculation,hi guys in this article we know about brick, brickwork, brick size, brick types and brick masonry calculation. Brick is construction and building material used to make pavement, brick wall retaining wall and other elements in masonry construction.
We have various type of brick size available in market brick standard size and second one is nominal size of brick.
Bricks have multiple shape and size and they can vary according to location and countries so we have brick size is not constant through out the world. There are several way of categorise brick types according to their
nature ,dimension ,properties ,water absorbent and etc.
What is brick
Brick have history of using from ancient time, when civilization is start to developed in ancient time.ancient people try to develop their life in forest near the bank of river for food clothes and shelter. First start who made air dried brick for making of shelter.
When industrial civilization is developed first time in England they start to make fired brick for making house. And we know that today brick is building material to form brick masonry wall ,different types of pavement and different types of retaining wall and other elements in building construction and civil engineering.
In ancient time brick refer to a unit composed of clay but it is now used to denote a rectangular units made of clay bearing soil, sand lime or concrete material.
brick can be joined together by using cement mortar made of mix of sand cement and water, in ancient time when cement was not discovered people used lime mortar and clay mortar of soil for as binding and Adhesive material.
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Properties of bricks
Properties of bricks describe three category and their properties hardness water absorbing capacity and there compressive strength of bricks
1) compressive strength of bricks :- compressive strength of bricks is also known as crushing strength of bricks is the property of bricks which represent the amount of load carried by brick per unit area. according to BIS standard the minimum compressive strength of bricks should be 3.5 N/mm2 and their compressive nature is reduced when it is soaked in water.
2) Hardness :- good quality brick will have resistance against abration. this is the property is called as hardness of bricks which help to give permanent nature of brick structure because of this property brick do not damage back scraping.
3) water absorption capacity of bricks :– bricks have property to absorb water upto certain limit. First class of bricks absorb maximum water 20% by weight of bricks.2nd class of bricks absorb maximum water 22% by weight of bricks.3rd class of bricks absorb maximum water 25% by weight of bricks.
Quality test of bricks at construction site
When bricks are using at construction site we should check its quality by several process
1) when we struck 2 bricks together there is producing ringing sound to be delivered that’s represent good quality of bricks
2) the brick should not be break when it is dropped from a height of 1 metre
3) the colour of bricks should be bright and uniform and they should be well burnt and having a smooth surfaces and sharp edges at all corner and rectangular side.
4) there short not be any white patches on the brick surfaces and there should not be any scratch left on the brick surface
5) thermal conductivity of bricks should be less and there should be sound proof and it has not water absorbing capacity more than 20% by weight when it is soaked in water
Brick types and brickwork
Bricks are produces in numerous classes, type material, bricks size and brick work. There is several way of classification of brick types according to their absorment of water capacity. And brickwork is laying of brick for making of brick wall.
According to dried condition brick types are categorised into two types
1) Non fired brick – it is sun dried or unburnt bricks are durable and these are used for temporary structures of building. Unburnt bricks preparation involve 3 steps their preparation of Clay, moulding and drying. after moulding bricks are subject to sunlight And dried using heat of sun. these type of bricks are air dried and also known as mud bricks and their binding and adhesive material used as a straw.
Generally mud bricks kept in hot sun light for sufficient dried and non fire bricks are not longest lasting and strongest. Today this type of bricks are not used for making building.
2) fired brick :- fired bricks are one of the longest lasting strongest building material known as artificial stone and which was burnt sufficient in kiln.
According to water absorbent capacity and fired bricks the brick types are categorised into four types.
1) first class brick:- first class bricks are having good quality compared to other classes.they are moulded on table moulding and burnt in large kilns so this bricks contain is standard shape, standard size of bricks ,having sharp edge and smooth surfaces. they are more durable and having more strength for permanent structure of building, because of their good properties they are costly than other classes of bricks.
the burnt red clay brick when emerged in water and absorb 20% of water of its weight, then this type of brick type is known as first class bricks that is recommended by all in civil engineering.
2) second class brick :- second class of bricks are moderate quality bricks and they are moulded by ground moulding process. Second class bricks are also burnt in kiln, but due to ground moulding they do not have a smooth surface as well as sharp edge. the shape of bricks also irregular due to an uneveness in ground.
the burnt red clay brick when emerged in water and absorb 22% of water of its weight, then this type of brick type is known as second class bricks
3) third class brick :- third class bricks are poor quality bricks which are generally used for temporary structure like ground filling and flooring. this type of bricks is not suitable for rainy areas. they are ground moulded type bricks and burnt in clamps. the surface of this type of bricks are rough and they have unfair edges.
the burnt red clay brick when emerged in water and absorb 25% of water of its weight, then this type of brick type is known as third class bricks
4) fourth class bricks :- 4th class bricks are very poor quality bricks and these are not used as Brick in the construction of a structure. they are crushed and used as aggregate in the manufacturing of concrete and ground filling.
they are obtained by over burning because of this its gets overheated and of obtaining brittle nature so they can break easily and not suitable for construction purpose.
Uses of different class of bricks for different purpose
As we study there are four class of bricks which are used for different purposes. First and second class of bricks used for construction of permanent structure like building retaining wall and boundary wall and third class of bricks used for making temporary structure and forth class of bricks are overheated and over burnt and there are small pieces used as aggregate for making concrete material.
brick types according to their manufacturing process
1) Extruded :- this type of brick are made by being forced through an opening in steel dia with very consistent size and shape and used wire to cut the size after extrusion
2) moulded :- this type of brick manufactured and shaped in several type of moulds rather than being extruded ,it will be machine moulded and hand made moulded.
3) dry pressed :- this type of brick type similar to moulded method but starts with a much thicker clay mix and is compressed with great force.
According to material used in formation of bricks it is categorised into different categories
1) red clay brick :- these bricks are made from clay soil and they are table moulding or ground moulding and after sun drying it will be burnt in kiln.This bricks are properly burnt and have smooth and sharp edges at all the corner and sides. Its water absorbing capacity is 20% to 30% by weight of bricks.
2) fly ash brick :- fly ash bricks are manufactured by machine using fly ash and water. the bricks have better properties than clay brick and have greater resistance. high concentration of calcium oxide which is used in cement production so it is also known as self cement bricks. fly ash bricks are lightweight and thus it reduce self weight of a structure.
fly ash bricks have high fibre of heat insulation, high-strength, uniforms size and have better joints for plaster. it has low water penetration and does not require soaking of bricks before use in masonry work.
3) concrete bricks :- concrete bricks is also known as ACC block and easy to manufacture at construction site by adding a mixture of aggregates sand water and cement and they moulded, curing of water and hardening proper gain strength after sometime and used as concrete bricks
4) engineering bricks
engineering bricks have high compressive strength ,low water absorbing capacity, low porosity and used for special application provide resistance against acid attack and Frost condition. And it is used as formation of basement
5) sand lime brick :- these type of bricks are manufactured by mix of sand lime and water commonly called as sandlime brick and it is used for ornamental purpose in several designing of building and Park.
Brick standard size in India
In India brick standard size is known as modular brick size. Brick standard size is about 190 mm× 90mm ×90mm per Recommendation of BIS. By adding mortar thickness that is 10 mm the dimension of brick become 200 mm ×100 mm ×100 mm which is known as nominal size of modular brick.
And brick size in India have also presence of other size of bricks that is 230 mm ×115mm×75 mm. Some people want to know brick size in inches, in mm and in centimetre so let their value in all the measurement unit.
Various countries has various standard brick size and dimension however brick can be made in multiple shapes and size depending on its application. if bricks are large it is difficult to burn them properly and they become too heavy to be placed with single hand.
on other hand if it’s are a small that need more quantity of mortar is required so standard dimension is determined by various factor of bricks. And actual size real size of brick and their nominal size is sum of actual size and mortar thickness.
Brick wall and brickwork in masonry is done by using minimum thickness of 10mm cement mortar is made of mix of sand cement and water.
1) brick standard size :-
Actual size of brick
brick size in mm is 190 mm× 90 mm ×90 mm
brick size in cm is 19 cm× 9 cm ×9 cm
brick size in inches is 8″ × 4″× 4″
Nominal size of brick by adding mortar thickness is following
brick size in mm is 200 mm× 100 mm ×100 mm
brick size in cm is 20 cm× 20 cm × 20 cm
brick size in inches is 8.5″ × 4.5″× 4.5″
2) other size of brick used in India
Actual size of brick
brick size in mm is 230 mm× 115 mm ×75 mm
brick size in cm is 23 cm× 11.5 cm × 7.5 cm
brick size in inches is 9″ × 4.5″× 3″
Nominal size of brick by adding mortar thickness is following
brick size in mm is 240 mm× 125 mm ×85 mm
brick size in cm is 24 cm× 12.5cm × 8.5 cm
brick size in inches is 9.5″ × 5″× 3.5″
3) in some region of India there is also presence of other size of brick like 9″×4″×3″ and 9″×4″×2″.
Brick masonry calculation
Brick masonry calculation is finding and calculation of quantity of cement sand and water and number of brick required for brick wall. And brick mortar calculation provide us number of bricks required at construction site and quantity of cement mortar used for binding of different layer of brick masonry work.
Suppose we have 4 inch wall of 1 m3 area then we have to do cement mortar calculation in brick masonry.
Cement mortar calculation for brickwork
Size of brick = 190 × 90 × 90 mm
Mortar thickness = 10 mm
Brickwork volume = 1m3
Size of brick with mortar = 200×100×100 mm
Volume of one brick with mortar = 200×100×100 mm3
= 0.2 ×0.1 ×0.1 =0.002 m3
Number of brick = volume of brickwork/ volume of one brick with mortar
Number of brick = 1m3/0.002 =500 nos
Volume of one brick without mortar
= 190 × 90 × 90 mm = 0.19 ×0.09×0.09 m3
Volume of one brick without mortar = 0.001539 m 3
Volume of 500 brick without mortar = 500×0.001539 = 0.7695 m3
Volume of mortar = 1m3_ 0.7695 = 0.2305 m3
Wet condition volume = 0.2305 m 3
Dry volume = 0.2305 ×1.33 =0.306565 m3
Mortar ratio = 1:6
Sum of ratio = 1+6=7
1) cement mortar calculation for brickwork
Quantity of cement = 0.306565×1/7×1440
Quantity of cement = 63 kg
2) quantity of sand = 0.306565×6/7
Quantity of sand = 0.26277 m3
So we have brick masonry Calculation and brick mortar calculation is given following
For 1m3 of brickwork we have a require
Number of brick = 500 nos
Cement quantity = 63 kg
Sand volume = 0.26277 m3