The best cement types in india,composition and cement water ratio

In India, commonly used cement types include Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), and Portland Slag Cement (PSC). OPC is known for general construction, PPC contains pozzolanic materials for enhanced durability, and PSC incorporates granulated blast furnace slag, providing resistance to chloride and sulphate attacks.

The composition of OPC typically includes limestone, clay, gypsum, and small amounts of other materials. PPC combines OPC with pozzolanic materials like fly ash or silica fume. PSC incorporates OPC and blast furnace slag.

The water-cement ratio varies based on factors such as desired strength and workability. A common range is 0.45 to 0.6.

The best cement types in india, cement composition and cement water ratio, hi guys in this article we know about the best cement types in india, cement composition and cement water ratio.

The origin of cement goes back to ancient Greece and Rome the material used wire lime and volcanic ashes that slowly reacted with presence of water to form hard mass like concrete.

Cement derived from caementum latin word their meaning is a stone chippings. The cement is binding material and Adhesive substance used in building construction and civil engineering.

In this article we know about what is cement, cement types in India, history of cement, manufacturing process of cement, setting time of cement, hardening of cement ,water cement ratio ,cement type and which cement is best in India.

so topics of this article is following

Cement types cement composition and cement water ratio
Cement types cement composition and cement water ratio

1) cement
2) history of cement
3) cement types
4) cement composition and raw material
5) cement manufacturing process
6) cement setting time
7) which cement is best in india
8) cement water radio
9) cement density and cement unit weight

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Cement is an Adhesive substance and binding material used in building construction and civil engineering for the construction of all types of concrete structure bridges, Dam,tunnel,drainage system, construction of factories high rise building apartment retaining wall and residential building purpose.

Cement are fine ground powder that when mixed with water and sand it is set to hard mass known as cement mortar and when it is mix with sand aggregate and water its set to hard mass known as concrete.

Setting and hardening of cement results from hydration of cement which is chemical reaction of cement compound with water that results crystal or gel like material with high surface area. The cement is hardened when it is mix with water and due to their hydration properties it is known as hydraulic cement.

History of cement

The history of cement first start in ancient Greece and Rome. So origin of history of cement goes back to European country Greece and Rome.

About 2000 years ago first discovering material is volcanic Ash that slowly reacted with presence of water to form hardness form the cementing material of Roman mortar and concrete.

History of Portland pozzolana cement

the city name Pozzuolin in Italy European country have rich source of essential raw material of cement that is aluminosilicate this material giving rise to classic development of pozzolana cement of the Roman era and aluminosilicate that react with lime in water to form cement mortar.That is the history of development of pozzolana cement.

History of ordinary Portland cement

history of Portland cement it is started in England near the city name portland having near huge mountain of Portland stone. And Portland cement is discovered by Joseph Aspdin in England in 1824 this is mixture of limestone and clay. And Joseph Aspdin obtained patent for manufacturing of Portland cement.

The manufacturing of Portland cement rapidly spread to European countries and North America in 19 century and during 20 Century Cement manufacture process spread worldwide and in early 21st century China and India had become the world leaders in cement production followed by United States, Brazil ,Turkey and Iran.

Cement types in india

There is different types of cement and cement types in india available in market and manufacturing process are following

There are three cement types used in India are ordinary Portland cement (OPC),Portland slag cement (PSC) and Portland pozzolana cement (PPC)

1) ordinary Portland cement (OPC)

2) Portland slag cement (PSC)

3) Portland pozzolana cement (PPC)

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) types

The full form of OPC is ordinary Portland cement that is also known as in short form OPC .OPC is available in market in 3 cement grade that is cement grade 33, cement grade 43 and cement grade 53. But of cement OPC 43 and 53 is best cement for all types of structural work footing beam slab and plastering work today and it has long lasting and long life.

Sometimes people ask which cement is best in India? That answer is different types of cement grade OPC cement are used for different purposes and give best result like the most best cement is OPC 43 used for plastering work.

Which cement is best in India we will later discuss in this article .Although OPC-53 is good but sometimes it’s causes cracks and shrinkage of plastering but it has high strength and long lasting and life that’s why OPC-53 also used for high rise building, dams and Bridge for plastering work. Now today OPC 33 and OPC43 is old cement and it is replaced by OPC 53 cement.

Properties of ordinary Portland cement ( OPC) types

1)OPC in popularly widely used in construction work more choice

2) OPC cement attend the strength in less time

3) OPC cement have different cement grade 33, 43 and 53

4) it has high initial setting time

Now we have second cement type is Portland slag cement

Portland slag cement (PSC) types

The full form of PSC is Portland slag cement basically used in coastal areas of building for plastering work to prevent from salty water and most harmful chemical agents that is present in coastal areas due to oceans.

This cement is produced by mixing of Portland cement clinker with gypsum and granulated blast furnace slag in suitable for proportion and grinding the mixture to get Portland slag cement.

According to the the control over physical and chemical specification slag is mixed up to 25 to 40% and we know that slag is by product in the manufacturing of pig iron and slag is mixture of lime, silica and Alumina.

Portland slag cement provides higher workability, higher finishability, lower permeability ,improved resistance to aggressive chemical ,more consistent plastic and hardened properties,flexural strength and high compressive strength.

Advantages to use Portland slag cement types

1) use of slag cement significantly reduce the risk of damage caused by alkali. The silica material present in slag cement and silica reaction provides higher resistance against chloride attack

2) Portland slag cement reducing the risk of reinforcement corrosion

3) it provides higher resistance to attack of soil and water containing excess amount of sulphates or alkali metal, Alumina and iron as well as acidic water.

4) concrete containing slag cement has higher ultimate strength than concrete made from Portland cement

5) it has major drawbacks is that concrete made with slag cement sets slowly than concrete made with ordinary Portland cement.

Portland pozzolana cement types

The full form of PPC is Portland pozzolana cement. Portland pozzolana cement is variation of ordinary Portland cement.pozzolana material like fly ash and volcanic ashes that is natural material are added to ordinary Portland cement to make it Portland pozzolana cement.

Pozzolana material are added 15 to 35% by weight of ordinary Portland cement.

it is used as plaster work, footing ,slab ,beam and column in high rise building structure bridge and dams, because bridge and dams retaining walls always in make contact with running water and standing water and there is harmful chemical agents like alkalis, acids ,Salt present in water and try to react with cement brick wall.

To prevent from corrosion and chemical reaction between retaining wall and water soluble harmful chemicals PPC is best plastering material for high rise structure bridge

Properties of PPC cement

1) it is cheaper than OPC

2) better resistance against chemical

3) it facilitates better workability

4) removing framework having more time

5) pozzolana cement was natural and industrial wastage thus reducing the environmental pollution

6) PPC is highly resistant to sulphate attacks and hence it is prime used in construction of dams and Foundation

7) PPC has low initial setting strength.

Which is the best cement types in India 

There are several popular brand cement available in India batting UltraTech Cement ,ACC Cement, Shree Cement ,Ambuja Cement, Ramco Cement, India cement, JSW cement,wonder cement ,Binani Cement and mycem cement ,that is top brand of cement in India.

Before looking into brand name you have a studies different properties and quality of cement in this article. And so do not get confused with either use of OPC, PSC and PPC cement. I recommended all three are good cement and you can use

1) when you want to construct low rise building and residential apartment where there is no impurities present in water like chloride, sulphates and alkali we should use OPC 43 grade of cement for plastering, brick work ,tile fixing and all type of PCC work. If you want to do RCC work like Foundation beam slab and column you should use OPC 53 Grade of cement in place of 43 grade of cement.Care should be taken is that temperature should be not more than 35 degree celsius in your area.

If there is chance of attack of chemical present in soil and water having more amount of alkalis sulphates and chloride then you should use to Portland slag cement and Portland pozzolana cement which is cheaper than ordinary Portland cement

which is the best cement types for plastering in india

Best cement for plastering for residential building and low rise building I recommended use of 43 grade of cement which have enough strength.
But in case of high rise building, formation of bridge and Dam, high rise apartment where is the chance of chemical attack is more I recommended use of PPC and PSC best cement for plastering in india.

When we use PPC cement care is taken that temperature is not over 35 degree celsius in your areas, it will might be causes crack due to hot weather condition.

which is the best cement types for RCC in india

use of OPC 53 is the best cement types for rcc in india for residential building, low rise building and for the formation of foundation, column, slab and beam, I recommended use of 53 grade of cement which have high strength.

But in case of high rise building, formation of bridge and Dam, high rise apartment where is the chance of chemical attack is more I recommended use of PPC and PSC is the best cement types for rcc in india.

When we use PPC cement care is taken that temperature is not over 35 degree celsius in your areas, it will might be causes crack due to hot weather condition.

Cement composition and raw material

OPC (ordinary Portland cement ) cement composition consists of lime that is calcium oxide CaO) mixed with silica that is Silicon dioxide (SiO2)and Alumina that is Aluminium oxide (Al2O3).

The lime is obtained from calcareous stone like chalk and limestone. Silica and Alumina obtained from argillaceous rock and material.

Additional raw material silica, sand, iron oxide, bauxite some amount of magnesia is also added in smaller quantity to gain it Desire composition.the calcareous raw material are limestone and chalk and Coral or shell deposit are also used.

A small quantity of magnesia MgO is also added 4 – 5%. And smaller amount of gypsum about 5% is added in cement clinker during grinding to control the setting time of cement.

Flourine compound,phosphates, metal oxide ,sulfides and excessive alkalies is strictly limited in cement raw material.

Cement manufacturing process

Cement manufacturing power plant used for cement production have following main steps

1) crushing and grinding of raw material

Raw material like silica Alumina and lime soft wash in wash mill and then it is crushed in rotating cylindrical ball or tube mills. Crushing and grinding of raw material is wet,dry and semi dry condition. in wet process material are ground in wet condition and fed to the kiln as slurry.

In dry process raw material are grounded dry and fed to the kiln as dry semi dry condition raw material grounded dry and then moistened to form nodules that are fed to the kiln.

2) Blending :- approximation of the chemical composition required for a particular cement is obtained by selective quarrying and control of the raw material fed to the crushing and grinding plant.

3) Burning :- the earliest kiln in which cement was burnt in batches where bottle kiln, followed by chamber kilns and then by continuous shaft kiln. These kilns up to 200 metres long and 6 metre in diameter in wet Process Plant but shorter for dry process. The row material introduced at the upper end of kiln and move slowly down the kiln to the lower firing end.

The fuel of firing end is consist of oil, coal or natural gases injected through a pipe the temperature at firing end is about 1350 degree Celsius to 1550 degree Celsius.

4) grinding :- burnt cement come in the sheet of rectangular shape that is known as clinker and now clinker is mixed with a small amount of gypsum material and grinding along with to make fine powder of cement.

5) Packaging of cement :- now find powder of cement collected and Seal in cement bag by automatic machine and average cement bag weight is about 50 kg having cement unit Weight is 1440 kilogram per cubic metre that is also known as cement density. Some people frequently asked question what is cement density the answer is density of cement is 1440 Kg/m3.

Cement setting time

The setting and hardening of cement is continuous process the initial setting time is the interval between mixing of the cement with water and the time when the mix has lost plasticity and get stiffening to certain degree.

The final setting time is the point at which the set cement has acquired a sufficient firmness to resist a certain define pressure. Initial setting time at ordinary temperature is approx 45 minute and final setting time is no more than 10 to 12 hours.

Cement water ratio

The Cement water ratio is the ratio of weight of water to the weight of cement in concrete mix. A lower cement water ratio leads to higher strength and durability but it may make the mix difficult to work so workability can be resolved with the use of plasticizer.

Concrete hardens as a result of chemical reaction between cement and water known as hydration of cement and this produce heat is known as heat of hydration.

For 1 kilogram of cement minimum requirement of water is about 0.35 kg is needed for fully complete hydration reaction. But this cement water ratio is not possible for workability of concrete, to increase the workability of concrete cement water ratio taken as 0.45 to 0.60 used in civil engineering and construction work.

For higher strength concrete lower cement water ratio are used which is mixed with plasticizer to increase its workability.

Use of too much water results in segregation of the sand and aggregate component from the cement paste. And also water that is not consumed by the hydration reaction in concrete may leave microscopic pore that is known as bleeding in concrete that will reduce final strength of concrete.

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