What is Shallow foundation and where it is provided,hi guys in this article we know about what is Shallow foundations and where it is provided. As we know that stability of all superstructure and substructure of buildings, dams ,bridges,retaining wall depending on the type of foundation so for every civil engineer choosing of correct Foundation can be important.
All the Super structure like beam slab column transfer its own load to the foundation footing and foundation have to transfer that loads safely to the different bed of soil uniformly. So load carrying capacity of foundation depends on many parameter of soil like soil bearing capacity, underground water table and so on. According to depth of foundation there is mainly two types of foundation Shallow foundations and deep Foundation.
But in this article discuss about what is Shallow foundations and where it is provided.
What is Shallow foundation and their definition
Shallow Foundations is type of structural foundation that transfer structural loads to the soil very near to the top surface rather to provide in sublayer of soil or more Deeper.
Shallow Foundations are constructed where soil layer have good bearing capacity. And depth should be not more than 1.5 m in Shallow Foundation. Depth of Shallow Foundation are generally equal or less than its width.
Shallow Foundations is also known as open Foundation and they transfer load to the soil very near the surface. For economic point of view this Foundation is of engineer choice.
Where we provided Shallow Foundation
Important parameter to be considered while selecting Foundation
1) knowledge of nature of Super structure and the load to be transmitted to the foundation.if the Super structure having medium and a smaller load then we should preferred to provide Shallow Foundations and if superstructure having heavy and non uniform load then we should prefer to provide deep Foundation.
2) knowledge of the type and density of native soil is also important providing Foundation according to International Building Code like CABO code say that the soil having fine granules like clay and silt have poor bearing soil than soil having course granules like sand and gravel. The soil which have good soil bearing capacity it will be preferred to provide Shallow Foundations
3) the knowledge of groundwater table also help to selecting Foundation type. The areas which are high groundwater table used to provide deep Foundation.
4) the presence of noise sensitive area, bank of river ,sea sore area presence of drainage system is also important parameter to avoid shallow foundation in those areas.
So after estimating the safety parameter for Super structure and the cost of foundation help us in choosing the type of foundation.
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Important point to be learn for deep foundation
1) shallow foundations should be selected for those Areas where soil bearing capacity is good
2) Shallow Foundations should be selected for those Areas where underground water table is not too high and absence of water flow in underground sublayer of soil.
3) providing Shallow foundations for your structure is economical then deep Foundation
4) Shallow Foundations have Shallow depth upto 1.5 m and there depth should be not more than there width.