What is mortar and its classification and properties
* introduction:- we know about what is mortar and its classification and properties .mortar is mixture of cement sand and water in which cement is binding agent .after mixing mortar is stone like material as a result of hardening .binding mortar does not contain coarse aggregate it has only fine aggregate that is sand.
*uses:- binding mortar is used in stone and brick masonary work, it is used for filling of joint and production of building elements like bricks, bricks block and tiles etc.
* classification of mortar:-
Mortar are classified on the basis of following:- 1)kind of binding material 2)bulk density 3)nature of application 4)special mortar
1) according to binding material depends on several factor like working condition , hardening , temperature and moisture condition following type are:- A) cement mortar B) lime mortar C) gypsum mortar D) Surkhi mortar E) Gauged mortar
A) cement mortar:- in this type of cement mortar cement is used as binding material .cement sand have mix ratio acquire ,ratio of cement sand ranging between 1: 2 to 1 :8 to gain variable strength. You know that cement mortar used for masonary work of stone and bricks ,plastering of interior and exterior brick wall and tile installation etc.
B) Lime mortar:- in this type of mortar lime is used as binding material lime mortar has high plasticity and it can be easily place and it posses good binding and cohesiveness with the surface but it hardens very slowly ,lime mortar have two types fat lime and hydrated lime. 1)Fat lime 2)hydrated lime
1) fat lime :- it has agent material like calcium oxide and it hardening depend on loss of water and absorption of carbon dioxide from environment. its shrink very well and require about two to three time volume of sand ,it is unsuitable for waterlogged area ,fat lime suitable for plastering work of brick wall and stone wall.
2) hydrated lime:- by treating quicklime with water enough to satisfy its chemical affinity for water and it contain small amount of Alumina ,silica and iron oxide react with quick lime and giving strength for setting and hardening. it require ratio of lime and sand is about 1: 2. it is suitable for waterlogged area and condition and used for brickwork and stone masonary work.
*(C) gypsum mortar:-
in this type of mortar gypsum is used for binding material.
*(D) Surkhi mortar:- it is pozzolanic material of very small size passes through 4.75 mm IS sieve and 0 to 15% through 150 mm Micron sieve .Surkhi mortar used for ordinary masonary work of all kind superstructure and it cannot be used for plastering.
(E) Gauged mortar:- it is also called as lime cement mortar because some small amount of cement added with lime mortar to gain early hardening and strength.
2) according to bulk density there are two types of mortar:
A) heavy mortar B) light weight mortar
A) heavy mortar:– the mortar having bulk density is about 15 KN/m3 and more .it is generally made of quartz and coarse sand.
B) light weight mortar:- the mortar having bulk density less than 15KN/m3 it is made from fine aggregate.
3) nature of application:- according to nature of application there are having two types: one for brickwork and second one for plastering work.
A) brick- laying mortar B) finishing mortar
A) Brick -laying mortar:- lime mortar or cement mortar used for brickwork.
B) finishing mortar:- it is used for plastering of brick wall.
4) special mortar:- it has various type according to requirement of material like fire resistance motor sound absorbing mortar A) fire resistant mortar B) light weight mortar C)sound absorbing mortar D) x-ray shielding mortar
A) Fire- resistance mortar :-
it is manufactured by adding Alumina cement to the crushed powder of fire bricks .the ratio is one part of Alumina cement to 2 parts of powder of fire bricks.
B) light weight mortar:- it is prepared by adding material like wood powder to the cement mortar it is used for sound proof and heat proof construction of superstructure building.
C) sound absorbing mortar:-
it is used for reducing noise level -cement mortar is mix with Portland cement ,lime ,gypsum slag for reducing noise
D) x ray shielding mortar:-
It is used for providing plastering coats to wall and shielding of X-Ray cabinet. it is very high density about 22 KN/m3.
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